Impact Fees
White & Smith’s attorneys and planners have served over 70 impact fee clients over the last twenty years.  Our work includes:
  • Implementation Ordinances
  • Fee Calculations
  • Legal Review
  • Administrative Forms
  • Legal Defense
We have helped our clients fund and plan infrastructure that includes roads, schools, parks, libraries, law enforcement, trails and fire/rescue facilities. 

In addition, we are working with clients on several emerging areas of the impact fee practice.

Mobility Fees

Today, communities around the country meet their transportation needs with a more diverse system of infrastructure, which now includes transit, bike, and pedestrian facilities.   Where authorized, these categories of infrastructure also can be funded with impact fees.

In Pasco County, Florida, with our partners at Tindale-Oliver & Associates, we have helped implement a tiered Mobility Fee.

We currently are working on similar programs in Hillsborough County, Florida and Manatee County, Florida

Environmental Impact/Mitigation Fees

"Green infrastructure" also is burdened by growth.  Environmental areas previously enjoyed by existing residents may be converted to developed lands or, where preserved for recreation and environmental benefit, become taxed by the increased demands created by additional growth.


In partnership with Dr. James Nicholas, we have in recent years counseled Monroe County, Florida and St. Lucie County, Florida in the area of "environmental mitigation fees" to offset new growth's demands on environmental lands in those areas.

Past and Current Projects

We have worked in over 70 jurisdictions nationwide to develop, implement, and defend impact fee programs. They are listed here, by state.


Avondale, Flagstaff, Goodyear, Queen Creek, Maricopa County, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, and Yuma


Oceanside, Riverside, and San Diego


Douglas County, Larimer County


New Castle County


Apopka, Aventura, Citrus County, Brevard County, Casselberry, Collier County, Coral Springs, Deltona, Escambia County, Flagler County, Ft. Pierce, Hernando County, Hillsborough County, Indian River County, Inverness, Kissimmee, Lakeland, Marion County, Manatee County, Monroe County, North Port, Orange County, Orlando, Osceola County, Oviedo, Palm Beach County, Palm Coast, Panama City, Pasco County, Sarasota, Sarasota County, St. Johns County, St. Lucie County, and Tavares


Athens-Clarke County and Garden City


Frederick and Queen Anne’s County


Ocean Springs


Nixa and West Peculiar Fire District


Missoula, Missoula County, Bozeman, and Helena


Mesquite, Henderson, Nye County, Washoe County Regional Transporation Commission


Delaware, Fairfield, Pickerington, and Sunbury


Manheim Township and Cranberry Township

South Carolina

Aiken County, Anderson County, Beaufort County, Georgetown County, Hilton Head Island, and York County


Summit County, Park City (Housing In-Lieu Fees)


Stafford County, Spotsylvania County